Growth performance and immune function of Manduca sexta larvae in nutrient space. In each panel, hot colors (red) indicate high values and cool colors (blue) indicate low values. Each diagonal solid black line represents a nutritional rail provided by each diet, whereas the 1:1 rail is represented by a dashed line. Because individual caterpillars didn’t have a choice of diets, they can’t move off the rails, only slide up and down, depending on how much total food they consume. (a) Performance index of caterpillars on different experimental diets. The performance index is calculated by scaling an individual caterpillar’s growth rate by the survival rate in a particular diet treatment. (b) Encapsulation response of caterpillars plotted in nutrient space. Encapsulation was measured as mg of dry weight of encapsulated tissue surrounding nylon implants after 24 hours. (c) . Phenoloxidase (PO) response of caterpillars plotted in nutrient space. (d) . Prophenoloxidase (ProPO) response of caterpillars plotted in nutrient space. (e) Total hemolymph protein response of caterpillars plotted in nutrient space. (f) Hemocyte density of caterpillars plotted in nutrient space.
Pepiada XXX Promotional Material
The first promotional flyer (distributed physically and digitally) for the arepa food cart Pepiada XXX in Missoula, Montana. Flyer details what arepas are (ingredients), where they come from, and instructions for consumption.
Airborne Plant Volatiles in Stimulus-Space
(From a manuscript currently in prep)
Induced VOC blends from D. wrighii plants in the field plotted in stimulus-space.The absolute value of standardized PCA and LDA loadings of different chemical compounds are used. PCs 1 and 2 explain the majority of the chemical variance related to abiotic variation (24% and 17%) and the two linear discriminant functions describe the majority of the variation attributed to herbivory (66% and 33%). In all plots, compounds fall mainly in quadrants 1, 3 and 4.
Sample 1 from the Summer of the Arepa Cookbook
Sample 1 from the Pepiada XXX cookbook project, detailing our introduction, and the major dishes outlined in the book.
Noise and airborne volatile communication channels
(From Wilson et al. 2015 in BioScience)
The dynamics of insects gaining information from plant-emitted volatile plumes. Here, two plant species are depicted emitting hypothetical volatile plumes over a two-dimensional plane. Gray arrows in the bottom plume indicate airflow vectors that drive plume shape. Palettes represent different volatile blends emitted by each plant species, with each color indicative of a different component. The plants have different components, and one chemical overlap. Each vertical bar on the bottom graph represents a spatial distribution of the total chemical concentration of the blend (chemical concentration is gaussian) across the plume and the dotted line indicates the path taken by the insect to reach its intended plant. Important factors and complications of the system are shown: 1) ratios of chemicals stay constant whether they are sampled in the middle or on the edge of the plume, 2) in complex areas of plume crossing, ratios may become skewed, and there may be chemical interactions between volatile compounds, 3) insects often use a combination of concentration gradient shifts, wind direction orientation (anemotaxis) and behavioral strategies (casting) to track plumes.
Promotional Material for Pepiada XXX Foodcart
A second set of promotional material (distributed physically and digitally) for the Pepiada XXX food cart in Missoula, MT. Material whimsically details what an arepa is (a question we received a lot) and some of the signature dishes (reina pepiada and the dominó).
Linear Discriminant Analysis of Volatile Blends
(From a manuscript currently in prep)
Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of VOCs produced by plants in field trials. Each point represents the multivariate VOC profile of a single D. wrightii plant in LDA space, belonging to one of the three (Control, Low Herbivory, High Herbivory) treatments. Dotted lines represent 95% confidence interval ellipses for each group. Though there is some overlap in treatment groups, the LDA partitions individual plants into the appropriate categories 62% of the time.
Growth in Caterpillars Injected with the Alkaloid Scopolamine
(From Wilson et al. 2017 in Arthropod Plant Interactions)
Growth trajectories of Manduca sexta caterpillars injected with 70µL of a 0.114M solution of scopolamine and caterpillars in the control group injected with saline. Weights are shown at four developmental periods: molting into the fifth instar, pre-injection, weight at wandering, and pupal weight. Caterpillars injected with the scopolamine solution are shown with dotted lines and white boxes and caterpillars injected with saline are shown in gray boxes and solid lines. Boxes at each time period show the group median, the first and third quartiles and whiskers that represent the highest and lowest value within 1.5 units of the interquartile range. Outliers are plotted as solid points and weight values are plotted with gray points. Significant overlap between experimental and control groups demonstrates that scopolamine injections had little effect on Manduca sexta weights and growth.
Sample 2 from The Summer of the Arepa Cookbook
A second sample from the Pepiada XXX arepa cookbook project - detailing the transition into section 1 - basics. Photo by Juan Oteyza.
Behavioral Responses of Trichogramma Wasps to Plant Airborne Volatiles
(From Wilson & Woods 2016 in Journal of Insect Science)
Graphical abstract. Trichogramma wasps have both innate and learned behavior for airborne volatile compounds given off by plants that are attacked by herbivores.